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A cannery receives on a given day 12 tons of raw produce

A cannery receives on a given day 12 tons of raw produce, 5 tons of cans, 0.5 tons of cartons, and 0.3 tons of miscellaneous materi­als. Of the 12 tons of raw produce, 10 tons become processed product, 1.2 tons end up as produce waste, which is fed to cattle, and the remainder is discharged with the wastewater from the plant. Four tons of the cans are stored internally for future use, and the remainder is used to package the product. About 3 percent of the cans used are damaged. Stored separately, the damaged cans are recycled. The cartons are used for packaging the canned product, except for 5 percent that are damaged and subsequently separated for recycling. Of the miscellaneous materials, 25 percent is stored internally for future use; 50 percent becomes waste paper, of which 35 percent is separated for recycling with the remainder being discharged as mixed waste; and 25 percent becomes a mixture of solid waste materi­als. Assume the materials separated for recycling and disposal are collected daily.

Prepare a materials balance for the cannery on this day and a materials flow diagram accounting for all of the materials.

Also determine the amount of waste per ton of product.

Question 1 

The waste contributing steps to tomato processing industry is listed below with quantities and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS) values

Stream

Process Unit

Flow (L/min)

BOD (mg/L)

SS (mg/L)

#1

Prewashing units

1890

75

180

#2

Washer

1000

90

340

#3

Boiler feed water

1136

30

20

#4

Cooker

38

3520

7575

#5

Processing unit #1

76

4410

8890

#6

Processing unit #2

570

230

170

#7

Processing unit #3

380

450

540

 

a) Provide a suitable waste segregation (separation) and treatment scheme

b) What will be the flow and BOD concentration of the combined stream of #4 and #5

 

Question 2 

Suggest a treatment method for reuse or by-product recovery for the following wastes.

a.   Dairy (milk) waste containing whey (protein) material

b.   Cutting oil waste coming from metal cutting machines

c.   Dye waste from cloth dyeing (textile) industry.

 

Question 3 

Using the flow diagram given below explain the role of

i) Filter

ii) Activated carbon

iii) Filter press

iv) Equalization (equalizing) tank.


Question 4 

(a) What are the 2 different environmental problems of using incinerators? How can they be overcome?

(b) Based on the data provided below, calculate the charges for disposal of the waste with and without recycling at the transfer station, and comment on these costs

            Waste generated                                          10 tonnes

            Recyclable waste                                         70 %

            Transport costs                                             $ 1 per tonne per km

            Distance to landfill                                       120 km

            Location of transfer station                        mid way

            Cost of recovery at transfer station           $10 per tonne

            Sale value of recyclable goods                 $15 per tonne

            Tipping cost                                                  $40 per tonne 

Hint
Management 4 a. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste that leads to  environmental degradation and health deterioration. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, acid gases, metals, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration...

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